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A solid combustible organic rock, mainly by the plant body after the biological chemistry, buried and then by the transformation of geological processes. Commonly known as coal. China is the first country in the world to use coal. Liaoning Province, Xinle ancient cultural relics, found in Henan city of Gongyi coal craft, also found in the Western Han Dynasty ruins of briquette of iron. "The Classic of the Great Wilderness" said coal stone nirvana, Wei Jin said coal graphite or charcoal. The Ming Dynasty Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica" for the first time to use the name of coal. Greek and ancient Rome also used the national coal earlier, the Greek scholar Teo Vlastos in about 300 BC, a "stone" history, which records the nature and origin of coal; ancient Rome about 2000 has begun using coal heating.
Coal formation in the surface under normal temperature and pressure, by the accumulation of stagnant water in the plant remains in the mud or carbonizing SAPROFICATION, into peat or muck or peat; sapropel buried after falling down to the basement of the basin due to deep underground, the diagenesis into lignite; when the temperature and pressure gradually increased, then transformed into bituminous coal to anthracite metamorphism. Peat is the process that the body of the higher plants is converted into peat by biochemical changes in the swamp. The role of humic mud is the process of transforming the remains of the lower organisms into the mud in the swamp. Mud is a kind of sludge which is rich in water and asphaltene.
Because of the different research contents and the use of coal, coal has a variety of classification methods, such as the composition of elements, causes of formation, metamorphic degree, industrial uses, process properties, etc.. Early based on the classification of the elements of coal, said the scientific classification. Often used in the geological genetic classification is divided into coal, coal, humic sapropelic coal and humic sapropelic coal. According to the degree of coalification can be divided into lignite, bituminous coal and anthracite. In October 1989, the National Bureau of standards issued a "national standard" China coal classification (GB5751-86), on the basis of dry ash free volatile Vdaf, bond index G, glial layer maximum thickness of Y, B, Oaxaca expansion degree of coal, coal and transmittance of P ash free calorific value Qgr, 6 classification index MAF coal will be divided into 14 categories. The lignite, long flame coal, non caking coal and weakly caking coal, 1 / 2caking coal, gas coal, gas coal, 1 / 3 of coking coal, coking coal, lean coal, lean coal, lean coal and anthracite.
The chemical composition of organic matter in coal is high polymer complex organic compounds, mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus and other elements, and more than three carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and total organic matter occupies 95%; inorganic matter in coal also contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur amount etc. element. Carbon is the most important component in the coal, the content increased with the deepening of the degree of coalification. The carbon content in peat was 50% ~ 60%, 60% ~ 70% lignite, bituminous coal is 74% ~ 92%, 90% ~ 98%. Sulfur in coal is the most harmful chemical component. Coal combustion, in which sulfur generation SO2, corrosion of metal equipment, pollution environment. The content of sulfur in coal can be divided into 5 levels: high, greater than 4%; sulfur rich coal, from 2.5% to 4%; sulfur in coal, from 1.5% to 2.5%; low sulfur coal is 1% ~ 1.5%; ultra low sulfur coal, less than or equal to 1%. Sulfur in coal can be divided into two categories: organic sulfur and inorganic sulfur.
The industrial analysis can understand the nature of coal by industrial analysis. Technical analysis. Determination of moisture content, volatile matter and ash content of coal, and calculation of fixed carbon. Water can be divided into external and internal moisture and moisture combined with mineral in coal and crystal water, combined water. External water for coal mining, transportation, and storage in the washing process, attached to the surface of coal particle and pore water in ovo. For internal moisture adsorption or condensation in the coal particles inside the pores of the water at the temperature above 100 DEG C can be completely evaporated moisture in coal. Ash is the amount of residual residue after complete combustion of coal. Ash from coal. Volatile matter is a thermal decomposition product of organic matter in coal. Volatile with increasing degree of coalification decreases, can be used for preliminary estimation of coal. Fixed carbon is the residue of organic matter in coal, which is separated from air by heat. With the increase of the degree of metamorphism, the fixed carbon can be used as an indicator to identify the degree of coal metamorphism.
Technological properties of process properties of coal industrial evaluation reasonable coal basis, including adhesion, coking, heat, chemical reaction and thermal stability, the yields of tar and Preparability. Bond refers to the coal to produce colloid in high-temperature pyrolysis, the coal particle bound block performance. Bonding property is the main index to evaluate coking coal. Cokeability refers to the smelting for blast furnace has enough strength properties of metallurgical coke in the coke oven. Heat refers to the quantity of heat produced by the unit mass of coal at full combustion. The calorific value of coal is an important index of coal quality, and it is the basis of calculating heat balance, coal consumption and heat efficiency.
Associated elements in coal are the elements that are enriched in organic or inorganic forms in coal seams and their surrounding rocks. Some of the elements in the coal enrichment degree is very high, can form industrial ore deposit, such as GE rich coal, coal, uranium rich vanadium rich coal, its value is much higher than that of coal itself.
According to the nature and use of associated elements in coal, can be divided into useful elements, harmful elements and elements of 3 kinds of facies. The beneficial elements mainly include germanium, gallium, uranium, vanadium and so on. The main harmful elements are sulfur, phosphorus, fluorine, chlorine, arsenic, beryllium, lead, boron, cadmium, mercury, selenium, chromium, etc.. Sulfur is a common pest in coal.